Advanced Batteries and Energy Conversion
Current battery technologies exhibit limited cycle life and low specific energy densities. Mechanisms responsible for degradation in Li-ion batteries, and for low efficiencies in advanced battery chemistries, remain poorly understood.
Advanced Biofuels, Clean Combustion and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
Land and other resource constraints currently limit the portion of transportation energy that can be derived from biofuels.
To support aggressive vehicle electrification, electrical systems and devices will have to achieve higher conversion efficiencies and power/energy densities than are currently possible.
Advanced Lightweight Materials and Structures
Due to the limitations in individual materials with respect to crash performance, affordability and manufacturability, most analyses conclude that a multi-material approach will dominate future vehicle structure design.
As adoption of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs), grows, the power drawn by charging loads may create localized problems for distribution networks, including overloads, voltage profile degradation, and unbalance.
Energy Systems Analysis, Technology Roadmaps and Policy
The combinations of possible technology pathways and fueling strategies to address the fuel economy and GHG challenges are immense.